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זכר ימות עולם בינו שנות דור ודור... - דברים ל"ב'
Remember the days of old, consider the years of many generations... (Deuteronomy 32:7)

 

TIMELINE OF HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS

17th-6th C. BCE

BIBLICAL TIMES

(BCE - Before the Common Era)

c.17th century

Abraham, Isaac, Jacob - patriarchs of the Jewish people and bearers of a belief in one God - settle in the Land of Israel.
Famine forces Israelites to migrate to Egypt.

c.13th century

Exodus from Egypt: Moses leads Israelites from Egypt, followed by 40 years of wandering in the desert.
Torah, including the Ten Commandments, received at Mount Sinai.

13th-12th
centuries

Israelites settle in the Land of Israel

c.1020

Jewish monarchy established; Saul, first king.

c.1000

Jerusalem made capital of David's kingdom.

c.960

First Temple, the national and spiritual center of the Jewish people, built in Jerusalem by King Solomon.

c. 930

Divided kingdom: Judah and Israel

722-720

Israel crushed by Assyrians; 10 tribes exiled (Ten Lost Tribes).

586

Judah conquered by Babylonia; Jerusalem and First Temple destroyed; most Jews exiled.


THE SECOND TEMPLE PERIOD

538-142

Persian and Hellenistic periods

538-515

Many Jews return from Babylonia; Temple rebuilt.

332

Land conquered by Alexander the Great; Hellenistic rule.

166-160

Maccabean (Hasmonean) revolt against restrictions on practice of Judaism and desecration of the Temple

142-129

Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans.

129-63

Jewish independence under Hasmonean monarchy.

63

Jerusalem captured by Roman general, Pompey.

 

 

63 BCE-313
CE

Roman rule

63-4 BCE

Herod, Roman vassal king, rules the Land of Israel;
Temple in Jerusalem refurbished


(CE - The Common Era)

c. 20-33

Ministry of Jesus of Nazareth

66

Jewish revolt against the Romans

70

Destruction of Jerusalem and Second Temple.

73

Last stand of Jews at Masada.

132-135

Bar Kokhba uprising against Rome.

c. 210

Codification of Jewish oral law (Mishna) completed.

 

 

FOREIGN DOMINATION

313-636

Byzantine rule

c. 390

Commentary on the Mishna (Jerusalem Talmud) completed.

614

Persian invasion

 

 

636-1099

Arab rule

691

On site of First and Second Temples in Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock built by Caliph Abd el-Malik.

 

 

1099-1291

Crusader domination
(Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem)

 

 

1291-1516

Mamluk rule

 

 

1517-1917

Ottoman rule